Contents

Andrew Ning

Andrew Ning

Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering
Brigham Young University
435 CTB
Provo, UT 84602
(801) 422-1815

[Full CV]

Education

Professional Experience

Honors and Awards

Journal Articles

  1. Moore, K., and Ning, A., “Takeoff and Performance Tradeoffs of Retrofit Distributed Electric Propulsion for Urban Transport,” Journal of Aircraft, Aug. 2019. doi:10.2514/1.C035321 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF]
    @article{Moore2019,
      author = {Moore, Kevin and Ning, Andrew},
      doi = {10.2514/1.C035321},
      journal = {Journal of Aircraft},
      month = aug,
      title = {Takeoff and Performance Tradeoffs of Retrofit Distributed Electric Propulsion for Urban Transport},
      year = {2019}
    }
    
  2. Stanley, A. P. J., and Ning, A., “Massive Simplification of the Wind Farm Layout Optimization Problem,” Wind Energy Science, Jul. 2019, (in review). [BibTeX]
    @article{Stanley2019,
      author = {Stanley, Andrew P. J. and Ning, Andrew},
      journal = {Wind Energy Science},
      month = jul,
      note = {(in review)},
      title = {Massive Simplification of the Wind Farm Layout Optimization Problem},
      year = {2019}
    }
    
  3. Tingey, E., and Ning, A., “Development of a Parameterized Reduced-Order Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Wake Model,” Wind Engineering, Jun. 2019. doi:10.1177/0309524X19849864 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF] [Code]
    @article{Tingey2019,
      author = {Tingey, Eric and Ning, Andrew},
      doi = {10.1177/0309524X19849864},
      journal = {Wind Engineering},
      month = jun,
      title = {Development of a Parameterized Reduced-Order Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Wake Model},
      year = {2019}
    }
    
  4. Stanley, A. P. J., Ning, A., and Dykes, K., “Optimization of Turbine Design in Wind Farms with Multiple Hub Heights, Using Exact Analytic Gradients and Structural Constraints,” Wind Energy, Vol. 22, No. 5, pp. 605–619, May 2019. doi:10.1002/we.2310 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF]
    @article{Stanley2017c,
      author = {Stanley, Andrew P. J. and Ning, Andrew and Dykes, Katherine},
      doi = {10.1002/we.2310},
      journal = {Wind Energy},
      month = may,
      number = {5},
      pages = {605--619},
      title = {Optimization of Turbine Design in Wind Farms with Multiple Hub Heights, Using Exact Analytic Gradients and Structural Constraints},
      volume = {22},
      year = {2019}
    }
    
  5. Padrón, A. S., Thomas, J., Stanley, A. P. J., Alonso, J. J., and Ning, A., “Polynomial Chaos to Efficiently Compute the Annual Energy Production in Wind Farm Layout Optimization,” Wind Energy Science, Vol. 4, pp. 211–231, May 2019. doi:10.5194/wes-4-211-2019 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF] [Code]
    @article{Padron2019,
      author = {Padr\'{o}n, A. Santiago and Thomas, Jared and Stanley, Andrew P. J. and Alonso, Juan J. and Ning, Andrew},
      doi = {10.5194/wes-4-211-2019},
      journal = {Wind Energy Science},
      month = may,
      pages = {211-231},
      title = {Polynomial Chaos to Efficiently Compute the Annual Energy Production in Wind Farm Layout Optimization},
      volume = {4},
      year = {2019}
    }
    
  6. McDonnell, T., and Ning, A., “Gradient-Based Optimization of Solar-Regenerative High-Altitude Long-Endurance Aircraft,” Journal of Aircraft, Apr. 2019, (in review). [BibTeX]
    @article{McDonnell2019,
      author = {McDonnell, Taylor and Ning, Andrew},
      journal = {Journal of Aircraft},
      month = apr,
      note = {(in review)},
      title = {Gradient-Based Optimization of Solar-Regenerative High-Altitude Long-Endurance Aircraft},
      year = {2019}
    }
    
  7. Stanley, A. P. J., and Ning, A., “Coupled Wind Turbine Design and Layout Optimization with Non-Homogeneous Wind Turbines,” Wind Energy Science, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 99–114, Jan. 2019. doi:10.5194/wes-4-99-2019 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF] [Code]
    @article{Stanley2018a,
      author = {Stanley, Andrew P.J. and Ning, Andrew},
      doi = {10.5194/wes-4-99-2019},
      journal = {Wind Energy Science},
      month = jan,
      number = {1},
      pages = {99-114},
      title = {Coupled Wind Turbine Design and Layout Optimization with Non-Homogeneous Wind Turbines},
      volume = {4},
      year = {2019}
    }
    
  8. Martin, R. A., Gates, N. S., Ning, A., and Hedengren, J. D., “Dynamic Optimization of High-Altitude Solar Aircraft Trajectories Under Station-Keeping Constraints,” Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Nov. 2018. doi:10.2514/1.G003737 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF] [Code]
    @article{Martin2018,
      author = {Martin, R. Abraham and Gates, Nathaniel S. and Ning, Andrew and Hedengren, John D.},
      doi = {10.2514/1.G003737},
      journal = {Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics},
      month = nov,
      title = {Dynamic Optimization of High-Altitude Solar Aircraft Trajectories Under Station-Keeping Constraints},
      year = {2018}
    }
    
  9. Ingersoll, B., and Ning, A., “Efficient Incorporation of Fatigue Damage Constraints in Wind Turbine Blade Optimization,” Wind Energy, Aug. 2018, (in review). [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{Ingersoll2018,
      author = {Ingersoll, Bryce and Ning, Andrew},
      journal = {Wind Energy},
      month = aug,
      note = {(in review)},
      title = {Efficient Incorporation of Fatigue Damage Constraints in Wind Turbine Blade Optimization},
      year = {2018}
    }
    
  10. Hwang, J., and Ning, A., “Large-scale multidisciplinary optimization of an electric aircraft for on-demand mobility,” Journal of Aircraft, Aug. 2018, (in review). [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{Hwang2018a,
      author = {Hwang, John and Ning, Andrew},
      journal = {Journal of Aircraft},
      month = aug,
      note = {(in review)},
      title = {Large-scale multidisciplinary optimization of an electric aircraft for on-demand mobility},
      year = {2018}
    }
    
  11. Barrett, R., and Ning, A., “Integrated Free-Form Method for Aerostructural Optimization of Wind Turbine Blades,” Wind Energy, Vol. 21, No. 8, pp. 663–675, Aug. 2018. doi:10.1002/we.2186 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF] [Code]
    @article{Barrett2018,
      author = {Barrett, Ryan and Ning, Andrew},
      doi = {10.1002/we.2186},
      journal = {Wind Energy},
      month = aug,
      number = {8},
      pages = {663--675},
      title = {Integrated Free-Form Method for Aerostructural Optimization of Wind Turbine Blades},
      volume = {21},
      year = {2018}
    }
    
  12. Tingey, E., and Ning, A., “Trading off Sound Pressure Level and Average Power Production for Wind Farm Layout Optimization,” Renewable Energy, Vol. 114, No. B, pp. 547–555, Dec. 2017. doi:10.1016/j.renene.2017.07.057 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF] [Code]
    @article{Tingey2017,
      author = {Tingey, Eric and Ning, Andrew},
      doi = {10.1016/j.renene.2017.07.057},
      journal = {Renewable Energy},
      month = dec,
      number = {B},
      pages = {547-555},
      title = {Trading off Sound Pressure Level and Average Power Production for Wind Farm Layout Optimization},
      volume = {114},
      year = {2017}
    }
    
  13. Thomas, J., Gebraad, P., and Ning, A., “Improving the FLORIS Wind Plant Model for Compatibility with Gradient-Based Optimization,” Wind Engineering, Vol. 41, No. 5, pp. 313–329, Aug. 2017. doi:10.1177/0309524X17722000 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF] [Code]
    @article{Thomas2017,
      author = {Thomas, Jared and Gebraad, Pieter and Ning, Andrew},
      doi = {10.1177/0309524X17722000},
      journal = {Wind Engineering},
      month = aug,
      number = {5},
      pages = {313-329},
      title = {Improving the {FLORIS} Wind Plant Model for Compatibility with Gradient-Based Optimization},
      volume = {41},
      year = {2017}
    }
    
  14. Damiani, R., Ning, A., Maples, B., Smith, A., and Dykes, K., “Scenario Analysis for Techno-Economic Model Development of U.S. Offshore Wind Support Structures,” Wind Energy, Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 731–747, Apr. 2017. doi:10.1002/we.2021 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF] [Code]
    @article{Damiani2016,
      author = {Damiani, Rick and Ning, Andrew and Maples, Ben and Smith, Aaron and Dykes, Katherine},
      doi = {10.1002/we.2021},
      journal = {Wind Energy},
      month = apr,
      number = {4},
      pages = {731--747},
      title = {Scenario Analysis for Techno-Economic Model Development of U.S. Offshore Wind Support Structures},
      volume = {20},
      year = {2017}
    }
    
  15. Gebraad, P., Thomas, J. J., Ning, A., Fleming, P., and Dykes, K., “Maximization of the Annual Energy Production of Wind Power Plants by Optimization of Layout and Yaw-Based Wake Control,” Wind Energy, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 97–107, Jan. 2017. doi:10.1002/we.1993 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF] [Code]
    @article{Gebraad2017,
      author = {Gebraad, Pieter and Thomas, Jared J. and Ning, Andrew and Fleming, Paul and Dykes, Katherine},
      doi = {10.1002/we.1993},
      journal = {Wind Energy},
      month = jan,
      number = {1},
      pages = {97--107},
      title = {Maximization of the Annual Energy Production of Wind Power Plants by Optimization of Layout and Yaw-Based Wake Control},
      volume = {20},
      year = {2017}
    }
    
  16. Ning, A., “Actuator Cylinder Theory for Multiple Vertical Axis Wind Turbines,” Wind Energy Science, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 327–340, Dec. 2016. doi:10.5194/wes-1-327-2016 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF] [Code] [Data]
    @article{Ning2016,
      author = {Ning, Andrew},
      doi = {10.5194/wes-1-327-2016},
      journal = {Wind Energy Science},
      month = dec,
      number = {2},
      pages = {327--340},
      title = {Actuator Cylinder Theory for Multiple Vertical Axis Wind Turbines},
      volume = {1},
      year = {2016}
    }
    
  17. Ning, A., and Petch, D., “Integrated Design of Downwind Land-Based Wind Turbines Using Analytic Gradients,” Wind Energy, Vol. 19, No. 12, pp. 2137–2152, Dec. 2016. doi:10.1002/we.1972 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF] [Code]
    @article{Ning2016a,
      author = {Ning, Andrew and Petch, Derek},
      doi = {10.1002/we.1972},
      journal = {Wind Energy},
      month = dec,
      number = {12},
      pages = {2137--2152},
      title = {Integrated Design of Downwind Land-Based Wind Turbines Using Analytic Gradients},
      volume = {19},
      year = {2016}
    }
    
  18. Barrett, R., and Ning, A., “Comparison of Airfoil Precomputational Analysis Methods for Optimization of Wind Turbine Blades,” IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 1081–1088, Jul. 2016. doi:10.1109/TSTE.2016.2522381 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF] [Code] [Data]
    @article{Barrett2016,
      author = {Barrett, Ryan and Ning, Andrew},
      doi = {10.1109/TSTE.2016.2522381},
      journal = {IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy},
      month = jul,
      number = {3},
      pages = {1081--1088},
      title = {Comparison of Airfoil Precomputational Analysis Methods for Optimization of Wind Turbine Blades},
      volume = {7},
      year = {2016}
    }
    
  19. Fleming, P., Ning, A., Gebraad, P., and Dykes, K., “Wind Plant System Engineering through Optimization of Layout and Yaw Control,” Wind Energy, Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 329–344, Feb. 2016. doi:10.1002/we.1836 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF] [Code]
    @article{Fleming2016,
      author = {Fleming, Paul and Ning, Andrew and Gebraad, Pieter and Dykes, Katherine},
      doi = {10.1002/we.1836},
      journal = {Wind Energy},
      month = feb,
      number = {2},
      pages = {329--344},
      title = {Wind Plant System Engineering through Optimization of Layout and Yaw Control},
      volume = {19},
      year = {2016}
    }
    
  20. Ning, A., Damiani, R., and Moriarty, P., “Objectives and Constraints for Wind Turbine Optimization,” Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, Vol. 136, No. 4, p. 041010, Nov. 2014. doi:10.1115/1.4027693 [BibTeX] [DOI] [Code]
    @article{Ning2014,
      author = {Ning, Andrew and Damiani, Rick and Moriarty, Patrick},
      doi = {10.1115/1.4027693},
      journal = {Journal of Solar Energy Engineering},
      month = nov,
      number = {4},
      pages = {041010},
      title = {Objectives and Constraints for Wind Turbine Optimization},
      volume = {136},
      year = {2014}
    }
    
  21. Ning, A., “A Simple Solution Method for the Blade Element Momentum Equations with Guaranteed Convergence,” Wind Energy, Vol. 17, No. 9, pp. 1327–1345, Sep. 2014. doi:10.1002/we.1636 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF] [Code]
    @article{Ning2014b,
      author = {Ning, Andrew},
      doi = {10.1002/we.1636},
      journal = {Wind Energy},
      month = sep,
      number = {9},
      pages = {1327--1345},
      title = {A Simple Solution Method for the Blade Element Momentum Equations with Guaranteed Convergence},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/we.1636},
      volume = {17},
      year = {2014}
    }
    
  22. Ning, A., Kroo, I., Aftosmis, M. J., Nemec, M., and Kless, J. E., “Extended Formation Flight at Transonic Speeds,” Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 51, No. 5, pp. 1501–1510, Sep. 2014. doi:10.2514/1.C032385 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF]
    @article{Ning2014a,
      author = {Ning, Andrew and Kroo, Ilan and Aftosmis, Michael J. and Nemec, Marian and Kless, James E.},
      doi = {10.2514/1.C032385},
      journal = {Journal of Aircraft},
      month = sep,
      number = {5},
      pages = {1501-1510},
      title = {Extended Formation Flight at Transonic Speeds},
      volume = {51},
      year = {2014}
    }
    
  23. Xu, J., Ning, A., Bower, G., and Kroo, I., “Aircraft Route Optimization for Formation Flight,” Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 51, No. 2, pp. 490–501, Mar. 2014. doi:10.2514/1.C032154 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF]
    @article{Xu2014a,
      author = {Xu, Jia and Ning, Andrew and Bower, Geoff and Kroo, Ilan},
      doi = {10.2514/1.C032154},
      journal = {Journal of Aircraft},
      month = mar,
      number = {2},
      pages = {490-501},
      title = {Aircraft Route Optimization for Formation Flight},
      volume = {51},
      year = {2014}
    }
    
  24. Kless, J., Aftosmis, M., Ning, A., and Nemec, M., “Inviscid Analysis of Extended Formation Flight,” AIAA Journal, Vol. 51, No. 7, pp. 1703–1715, Jul. 2013. doi:10.2514/1.j052224 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF]
    @article{Kless2013a,
      author = {Kless, James and Aftosmis, Michael and Ning, Andrew and Nemec, Marian},
      doi = {10.2514/1.j052224},
      journal = {{AIAA} Journal},
      month = jul,
      number = {7},
      pages = {1703--1715},
      title = {Inviscid Analysis of Extended Formation Flight},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2514/1.j052224},
      volume = {51},
      year = {2013}
    }
    
  25. Ning, A., Flanzer, T., and Kroo, I., “Aerodynamic Performance of Extended Formation Flight,” Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 48, No. 3, pp. 855–865, May 2011. doi:10.2514/1.C031046 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF]
    @article{Ning2011,
      author = {Ning, Andrew and Flanzer, Tristan and Kroo, Ilan},
      doi = {10.2514/1.C031046},
      journal = {Journal of Aircraft},
      month = may,
      number = {3},
      pages = {855-865},
      title = {Aerodynamic Performance of Extended Formation Flight},
      volume = {48},
      year = {2011}
    }
    
  26. Ning, A., and Kroo, I., “Multidisciplinary Considerations in the Design of Wings and Wing Tip Devices,” Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 47, No. 2, pp. 534–543, Mar. 2010. doi:10.2514/1.41833 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF]
    @article{Ning2010,
      author = {Ning, Andrew and Kroo, Ilan},
      doi = {10.2514/1.41833},
      journal = {Journal of Aircraft},
      month = mar,
      number = {2},
      pages = {534--543},
      title = {Multidisciplinary Considerations in the Design of Wings and Wing Tip Devices},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2514/1.41833},
      volume = {47},
      year = {2010}
    }
    

Conference Publications

  1. Alvarez, E. J., and Ning, A., “Modeling Multirotor Aerodynamic Interactions Through the Vortex Particle Method,” AIAA Aviation Forum, Dallas, TX, Jun. 2019. doi:10.2514/6.2019-2827 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF]
    @inproceedings{Alvarez2019,
      address = {Dallas, TX},
      author = {Alvarez, Eduardo J. and Ning, Andrew},
      booktitle = {{AIAA} Aviation Forum},
      doi = {10.2514/6.2019-2827},
      month = jun,
      title = {Modeling Multirotor Aerodynamic Interactions Through the Vortex Particle Method},
      year = {2019}
    }
    
  2. McDonnell, T., and Ning, A., “An Examination into the Defining Characteristics of Flexible Solar Aircraft Configurations through Optimization,” AIAA Aviation Forum, Dallas, TX, Jun. 2019. doi:10.2514/6.2019-3456 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF]
    @inproceedings{McDonnell2019a,
      address = {Dallas, TX},
      author = {McDonnell, Taylor and Ning, Andrew},
      booktitle = {{AIAA} Aviation Forum},
      doi = {10.2514/6.2019-3456},
      month = jun,
      title = {An Examination into the Defining Characteristics of Flexible Solar Aircraft Configurations through Optimization},
      year = {2019}
    }
    
  3. Newcomb, J. E., and Ning, A., “The Effect of Communication and Vehicle Properties on the Search Performance of a Swarm of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles,” AIAA Scitech 2019 Forum, San Diego, CA, Jan. 2019. doi:10.2514/6.2019-1573 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF]
    @inproceedings{Newcomb2019,
      address = {San Diego, CA},
      author = {Newcomb, Jenna E. and Ning, Andrew},
      booktitle = {AIAA Scitech 2019 Forum},
      doi = {10.2514/6.2019-1573},
      month = jan,
      title = {The Effect of Communication and Vehicle Properties on the Search Performance of a Swarm of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles},
      year = {2019}
    }
    
  4. Gates, N. S., Moore, K. R., Ning, A., and Hedengren, J. D., “Combined Trajectory, Propulsion, and Battery Mass Optimization for Solar-Regenerative High-Altitude Long Endurance Unmanned Aircraft,” AIAA Scitech 2019 Forum, San Diego, CA, Jan. 2019. doi:10.2514/6.2019-1221 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF]
    @inproceedings{Gates2019,
      address = {San Diego, CA},
      author = {Gates, Nathaniel S. and Moore, Kevin R. and Ning, Andrew and Hedengren, John D.},
      booktitle = {AIAA Scitech 2019 Forum},
      doi = {10.2514/6.2019-1221},
      month = jan,
      title = {Combined Trajectory, Propulsion, and Battery Mass Optimization for Solar-Regenerative High-Altitude Long Endurance Unmanned Aircraft},
      year = {2019}
    }
    
  5. Baker, N. F., Stanley, A. P. J., Thomas, J. J., Ning, A., and Dykes, K., “Best Practices for Wake Model and Optimization Algorithm Selection in Wind Farm Layout Optimization,” AIAA Scitech 2019 Forum, San Diego, CA, Jan. 2019. doi:10.2514/6.2019-0540 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF]
    @inproceedings{Baker2019,
      address = {San Diego, CA},
      author = {Baker, Nicholas F. and Stanley, Andrew P. J. and Thomas, Jared J. and Ning, Andrew and Dykes, Katherine},
      booktitle = {AIAA Scitech 2019 Forum},
      doi = {10.2514/6.2019-0540},
      month = jan,
      title = {Best Practices for Wake Model and Optimization Algorithm Selection in Wind Farm Layout Optimization},
      year = {2019}
    }
    
  6. Thomas, J. J., Annoni, J., Fleming, P., and Ning, A., “Comparison of Wind Farm Layout Optimization Results Using a Simple Wake Model and Gradient-Based Optimization to Large-Eddy Simulations,” AIAA Scitech 2019 Forum, San Diego, CA, Jan. 2019. doi:10.2514/6.2019-0538 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF]
    @inproceedings{Thomas2019,
      address = {San Diego, CA},
      author = {Thomas, Jared J. and Annoni, Jennifer and Fleming, Paul and Ning, Andrew},
      booktitle = {AIAA Scitech 2019 Forum},
      doi = {10.2514/6.2019-0538},
      month = jan,
      title = {Comparison of Wind Farm Layout Optimization Results Using a Simple Wake Model and Gradient-Based Optimization to Large-Eddy Simulations},
      year = {2019}
    }
    
  7. Alvarez, E. J., and Ning, A., “Development of a Vortex Particle Code for the Modeling of Wake Interaction in Distributed Propulsion,” AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference, Atlanta, GA, Jun. 2018. doi:10.2514/6.2018-3646 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF]
    @inproceedings{Alvarez2018,
      address = {Atlanta, GA},
      author = {Alvarez, Eduardo J. and Ning, Andrew},
      booktitle = {{AIAA} Applied Aerodynamics Conference},
      doi = {10.2514/6.2018-3646},
      month = jun,
      title = {Development of a Vortex Particle Code for the Modeling of Wake Interaction in Distributed Propulsion},
      year = {2018}
    }
    
  8. Thomas, J. J., and Ning, A., “A Method for Reducing Multi-Modality in the Wind Farm Layout Optimization Problem,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Vol. 1037, No. 042012, Milano, Italy, The Science of Making Torque from Wind, Jun. 2018. doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1037/4/042012 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF]
    @inproceedings{Thomas2018,
      address = {Milano, Italy},
      author = {Thomas, Jared J. and Ning, Andrew},
      booktitle = {Journal of Physics: Conference Series},
      doi = {10.1088/1742-6596/1037/4/042012},
      month = jun,
      number = {042012},
      organization = {The Science of Making Torque from Wind},
      title = {A Method for Reducing Multi-Modality in the Wind Farm Layout Optimization Problem},
      volume = {1037},
      year = {2018}
    }
    
  9. Rajnarayan, D., Ning, A., and Mehr, J., “Universal Airfoil Parametrization Using B-Splines,” AIAA Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization Conference, Atlanta, GA, Jun. 2018. doi:10.2514/6.2018-3949 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF]
    @inproceedings{Rajnarayan2018,
      address = {Atlanta, GA},
      author = {Rajnarayan, Dev and Ning, Andrew and Mehr, Judd},
      booktitle = {{AIAA} Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization Conference},
      doi = {10.2514/6.2018-3949},
      month = jun,
      title = {Universal Airfoil Parametrization Using B-Splines},
      year = {2018}
    }
    
  10. McDonnell, T., Mehr, J., and Ning, A., “Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of Flexible Solar-Regenerative High-Altitude Long-Endurance Aircraft,” AIAA Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, Kissimmee, FL, Jan. 2018. doi:10.2514/6.2018-0107 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF]
    @inproceedings{McDonnell2018,
      address = {Kissimmee, FL},
      author = {McDonnell, Taylor and Mehr, Judd and Ning, Andrew},
      booktitle = {{AIAA} Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference},
      doi = {10.2514/6.2018-0107},
      month = jan,
      title = {Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of Flexible Solar-Regenerative High-Altitude Long-Endurance Aircraft},
      year = {2018}
    }
    
  11. Moore, K. R., and Ning, A., “Distributed Electric Propulsion Effects on Traditional Aircraft Through Multidisciplinary Optimization,” AIAA Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, Kissimmee, FL, Jan. 2018. doi:10.2514/6.2018-1652 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF]
    @inproceedings{Moore2018,
      address = {Kissimmee, FL},
      author = {Moore, Kevin R. and Ning, Andrew},
      booktitle = {{AIAA} Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference},
      doi = {10.2514/6.2018-1652},
      month = jan,
      title = {Distributed Electric Propulsion Effects on Traditional Aircraft Through Multidisciplinary Optimization},
      year = {2018}
    }
    
  12. Stanley, A. P. J., Ning, A., and Dykes, K., “Benefits of Two Turbine Rotor Diameters and Hub Heights in the Same Wind Farm,” Wind Energy Symposium, Kissimmee, FL, Jan. 2018. doi:10.2514/6.2018-2016 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF]
    @inproceedings{Stanley2018,
      address = {Kissimmee, FL},
      author = {Stanley, Andrew PJ and Ning, Andrew and Dykes, Katherine},
      booktitle = {Wind Energy Symposium},
      doi = {10.2514/6.2018-2016},
      month = jan,
      title = {Benefits of Two Turbine Rotor Diameters and Hub Heights in the Same Wind Farm},
      year = {2018}
    }
    
  13. Hwang, J. T., and Ning, A., “Large-Scale Multidisciplinary Optimization of an Electric Aircraft for On-Demand Mobility,” AIAA Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, Kissimmee, FL, Jan. 2018. doi:10.2514/6.2018-1384 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF]
    @inproceedings{Hwang2018,
      address = {Kissimmee, FL},
      author = {Hwang, John T. and Ning, Andrew},
      booktitle = {{AIAA} Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference},
      doi = {10.2514/6.2018-1384},
      month = jan,
      title = {Large-Scale Multidisciplinary Optimization of an Electric Aircraft for On-Demand Mobility},
      year = {2018}
    }
    
  14. Quick, J., Annoni, J., King, R., Dykes, K., Fleming, P., and Ning, A., “Optimization under Uncertainty for Wake Steering Strategies,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Vol. 854, No. 012036, Wake Conference, May 2017. doi:10.1088/1742-6596/854/1/012036 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF]
    @inproceedings{Quick2017,
      author = {Quick, Julian and Annoni, Jennifer and King, Ryan and Dykes, Katherine and Fleming, Paul and Ning, Andrew},
      booktitle = {Journal of Physics: Conference Series},
      doi = {10.1088/1742-6596/854/1/012036},
      month = may,
      number = {012036},
      organization = {Wake Conference},
      title = {Optimization under Uncertainty for Wake Steering Strategies},
      volume = {854},
      year = {2017}
    }
    
  15. Stanley, A. P. J., Thomas, J., Ning, A., Annoni, J., Dykes, K., and Fleming, P., “Gradient-Based Optimization of Wind Farms with Different Turbine Heights,” Wind Energy Symposium, Grapevine, TX, AIAA, Jan. 2017. doi:10.2514/6.2017-1619 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF]
    @inproceedings{Stanley2017b,
      address = {Grapevine, TX},
      author = {Stanley, Andrew P.J. and Thomas, Jared and Ning, Andrew and Annoni, Jennifer and Dykes, Katherine and Fleming, Paul},
      booktitle = {Wind Energy Symposium},
      doi = {10.2514/6.2017-1619},
      month = jan,
      publisher = {AIAA},
      title = {Gradient-Based Optimization of Wind Farms with Different Turbine Heights},
      year = {2017}
    }
    
  16. Padrón, S., Stanley, A. P. J., Thomas, J., Alonso, J. J., and Ning, A., “Polynomial Chaos for the Computation of Annual Energy Production in Wind Farm Layout Optimization,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Vol. 753, No. 032021, The Science of Making Torque from Wind, Oct. 2016. doi:10.1088/1742-6596/753/3/032021 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF]
    @inproceedings{Padron2016,
      author = {Padr\'{o}n, Santiago and Stanley, Andrew P.J. and Thomas, Jared and Alonso, Juan J. and Ning, Andrew},
      booktitle = {Journal of Physics: Conference Series},
      doi = {10.1088/1742-6596/753/3/032021},
      month = oct,
      number = {032021},
      organization = {The Science of Making Torque from Wind},
      title = {Polynomial Chaos for the Computation of Annual Energy Production in Wind Farm Layout Optimization},
      volume = {753},
      year = {2016}
    }
    
  17. Ingersoll, B., Ingersoll, K., DeFranco, P., and Ning, A., “UAV Path-Planning Using Bézier Curves and a Receding Horizon Approach,” AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference, Washington, DC, Jun. 2016. doi:10.2514/6.2016-3675 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF] [Code]
    @inproceedings{Ingersoll2016,
      address = {Washington, DC},
      author = {Ingersoll, Bryce and Ingersoll, Kyle and DeFranco, Patrick and Ning, Andrew},
      booktitle = {AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference},
      doi = {10.2514/6.2016-3675},
      month = jun,
      title = {{UAV} Path-Planning Using B\'{e}zier Curves and a Receding Horizon Approach},
      year = {2016}
    }
    
  18. Moore, K., and Ning, A., “Aerodynamic Performance Characterization of Leading Edge Protrusions on Small Propellers,” AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, San Diego, CA, Jan. 2016. doi:10.2514/6.2016-1786 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF] [Data]
    @inproceedings{Moore2016,
      address = {San Diego, CA},
      author = {Moore, Kevin and Ning, Andrew},
      booktitle = {AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting},
      doi = {10.2514/6.2016-1786},
      month = jan,
      title = {Aerodynamic Performance Characterization of Leading Edge Protrusions on Small Propellers},
      year = {2016}
    }
    
  19. Tingey, E., and Ning, A., “Parameterized Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Wake Model Using CFD Vorticity Data,” ASME Wind Energy Symposium, San Diego, CA, Jan. 2016. doi:10.2514/6.2016-1730 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF] [Code] [Data]
    @inproceedings{Tingey2016,
      address = {San Diego, CA},
      author = {Tingey, Eric and Ning, Andrew},
      booktitle = {ASME Wind Energy Symposium},
      doi = {10.2514/6.2016-1730},
      month = jan,
      title = {Parameterized Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Wake Model Using {CFD} Vorticity Data},
      year = {2016}
    }
    
  20. Duffield, M., Ning, A., and McLain, T., “Optimization-Based Path Planning for Separation Assurance on Small Unmanned Aircraft,” AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference, San Diego, CA, Jan. 2016. doi:10.2514/6.2016-2194 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF]
    @inproceedings{Duffield2016,
      address = {San Diego, CA},
      author = {Duffield, Matthew and Ning, Andrew and McLain, Timothy},
      booktitle = {AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference},
      doi = {10.2514/6.2016-2194},
      month = jan,
      title = {Optimization-Based Path Planning for Separation Assurance on Small Unmanned Aircraft},
      year = {2016}
    }
    
  21. Tingey, E., Thomas, J., and Ning, A., “Wind Farm Layout Optimization Using Sound Pressure Level Constraints,” IEEE Conference on Technologies for Sustainability, Ogden, UT, Jul. 2015. doi:10.1109/SusTech.2015.7314339 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF]
    @inproceedings{Tingey2015,
      address = {Ogden, UT},
      author = {Tingey, Eric and Thomas, Jared and Ning, Andrew},
      booktitle = {IEEE Conference on Technologies for Sustainability},
      doi = {10.1109/SusTech.2015.7314339},
      month = jul,
      title = {Wind Farm Layout Optimization Using Sound Pressure Level Constraints},
      year = {2015}
    }
    
  22. Thomas, J., Tingey, E., and Ning, A., “Comparison of Two Wake Models for Use in Gradient-Based Wind Farm Layout Optimization,” IEEE Conference on Technologies for Sustainability, Ogden, UT, Jul. 2015. doi:10.1109/SusTech.2015.7314347 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF]
    @inproceedings{Thomas2015,
      address = {Ogden, UT},
      author = {Thomas, Jared and Tingey, Eric and Ning, Andrew},
      booktitle = {IEEE Conference on Technologies for Sustainability},
      doi = {10.1109/SusTech.2015.7314347},
      month = jul,
      title = {Comparison of Two Wake Models for Use in Gradient-Based Wind Farm Layout Optimization},
      year = {2015}
    }
    
  23. Barrett, R., Freeman, I., and Ning, A., “Effect of Airfoil and Composite Layer Thicknesses on an Aerostructural Blade Optimization for Wind Turbines,” IEEE Conference on Technologies for Sustainability, Ogden, UT, Jul. 2015. doi:10.1109/SusTech.2015.7314346 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF]
    @inproceedings{Barrett2015,
      address = {Ogden, UT},
      author = {Barrett, Ryan and Freeman, Ian and Ning, Andrew},
      booktitle = {IEEE Conference on Technologies for Sustainability},
      doi = {10.1109/SusTech.2015.7314346},
      month = jul,
      title = {Effect of Airfoil and Composite Layer Thicknesses on an Aerostructural Blade Optimization for Wind Turbines},
      year = {2015}
    }
    
  24. Ning, A., Hayman, G., Damiani, R., and Jonkman, J., “Development and Validation of a New Blade Element Momentum Skewed-Wake Model within AeroDyn,” 33rd ASME Wind Energy Symposium, Kissimmee, FL, Jan. 2015. doi:10.2514/6.2015-0215 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF]
    @inproceedings{Ning2015,
      address = {Kissimmee, FL},
      author = {Ning, Andrew and Hayman, Greg and Damiani, Rick and Jonkman, Jason},
      booktitle = {33rd ASME Wind Energy Symposium},
      doi = {10.2514/6.2015-0215},
      month = jan,
      title = {Development and Validation of a New Blade Element Momentum Skewed-Wake Model within {AeroDyn}},
      year = {2015}
    }
    
  25. Ning, A., and Dykes, K., “Understanding the Benefits and Limitations of Increasing Maximum Rotor Tip Speed for Utility-Scale Wind Turbines,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Vol. 524, No. 012087, The Science of Making Torque from Wind, Jun. 2014. doi:10.1088/1742-6596/524/1/012087 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF]
    @inproceedings{Ning2014c,
      author = {Ning, Andrew and Dykes, Katherine},
      booktitle = {Journal of Physics: Conference Series},
      doi = {10.1088/1742-6596/524/1/012087},
      month = jun,
      number = {012087},
      organization = {The Science of Making Torque from Wind},
      title = {Understanding the Benefits and Limitations of Increasing Maximum Rotor Tip Speed for Utility-Scale Wind Turbines},
      volume = {524},
      year = {2014}
    }
    
  26. Gray, J., Hearn, T., Moore, K., Hwang, J., Martins, J., and Ning, A., “Automatic Evaluation of Multidisciplinary Derivatives Using a Graph-Based Problem Formulation in OpenMDAO,” 15th AIAA/ISSMO Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization Conference, Atlanta, GA, Jun. 2014. doi:10.2514/6.2014-2042 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF]
    @inproceedings{Gray2014,
      address = {Atlanta, GA},
      author = {Gray, Justin and Hearn, Tristan and Moore, Kenneth and Hwang, John and Martins, Joaquim and Ning, Andrew},
      booktitle = {15th {AIAA/ISSMO} Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization Conference},
      doi = {10.2514/6.2014-2042},
      month = jun,
      title = {Automatic Evaluation of Multidisciplinary Derivatives Using a Graph-Based Problem Formulation in {OpenMDAO}},
      year = {2014}
    }
    
  27. Dykes, K., Ning, A., King, R., Graf, P., Scott, G., and Veers, P., “Sensitivity Analysis of Wind Plant Performance to Key Turbine Design Parameters: A Systems Engineering Approach,” 32nd ASME Wind Energy Symposium, National Harbor, Maryland, Jan. 2014. doi:10.2514/6.2014-1087 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF]
    @inproceedings{Dykes2014,
      address = {National Harbor, Maryland},
      author = {Dykes, Katherine and Ning, Andrew and King, Ryan and Graf, Peter and Scott, George and Veers, Paul},
      booktitle = {32nd {ASME} Wind Energy Symposium},
      doi = {10.2514/6.2014-1087},
      month = jan,
      title = {Sensitivity Analysis of Wind Plant Performance to Key Turbine Design Parameters: A Systems Engineering Approach},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2514/6.2014-1087},
      year = {2014}
    }
    
  28. Ning, A., Damiani, R., and Moriarty, P., “Objectives and Constraints for Wind Turbine Optimization,” 31st ASME Wind Energy Symposium, Grapevine, TX, Feb. 2013. doi:10.2514/6.2013-201 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF]
    @inproceedings{Ning2013,
      address = {Grapevine, TX},
      author = {Ning, Andrew and Damiani, Rick and Moriarty, Patrick},
      booktitle = {31st ASME Wind Energy Symposium},
      doi = {10.2514/6.2013-201},
      month = feb,
      read = {1},
      title = {Objectives and Constraints for Wind Turbine Optimization},
      year = {2013}
    }
    
  29. Kless, J., Aftomis, M., Ning, A., and Nemec, M., “Inviscid Analysis of Extended Formation Flight,” 7th International Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics, Big Island, Hawaii, Jul. 2012. [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @inproceedings{Kless2012,
      address = {Big Island, Hawaii},
      author = {Kless, James and Aftomis, Mike and Ning, Andrew and Nemec, Marian},
      booktitle = {7th International Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics},
      month = jul,
      title = {Inviscid Analysis of Extended Formation Flight},
      url = {http://www.iccfd.org/iccfd7/assets/pdf/papers/ICCFD7-4306_paper.pdf},
      year = {2012}
    }
    
  30. Xu, J., Ning, A., Bower, G., and Kroo, I., “Aircraft Route Optimization for Heterogeneous Formation Flight,” 53rd AIAA Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii, Apr. 2012. doi:10.2514/6.2012-1524 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF]
    @inproceedings{Xu2012,
      address = {Honolulu, Hawaii},
      author = {Xu, Jia and Ning, Andrew and Bower, Geoffery and Kroo, Ilan},
      booktitle = {53rd {AIAA} Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference},
      doi = {10.2514/6.2012-1524},
      month = apr,
      title = {Aircraft Route Optimization for Heterogeneous Formation Flight},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2514/6.2012-1524},
      year = {2012}
    }
    
  31. Ning, A., and Kroo, I., “Compressibility Effects of Extended Formation Flight,” 29th AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii, Jun. 2011. doi:10.2514/6.2011-3812 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF]
    @inproceedings{Ning2011a,
      address = {Honolulu, Hawaii},
      author = {Ning, Andrew and Kroo, Ilan},
      booktitle = {29th {AIAA} Applied Aerodynamics Conference},
      doi = {10.2514/6.2011-3812},
      month = jun,
      title = {Compressibility Effects of Extended Formation Flight},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2514/6.2011-3812},
      year = {2011}
    }
    
  32. Ning, A., Flanzer, T., and Kroo, I., “Aerodynamic Performance of Extended Formation Flight,” 48th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Orlando, Florida, Jan. 2010. doi:10.2514/6.2010-1240 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF]
    @inproceedings{Ning2010a,
      address = {Orlando, Florida},
      author = {Ning, Andrew and Flanzer, Tristan and Kroo, Ilan},
      booktitle = {48th {AIAA} Aerospace Sciences Meeting},
      doi = {10.2514/6.2010-1240},
      month = jan,
      title = {Aerodynamic Performance of Extended Formation Flight},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2514/6.2010-1240},
      year = {2010}
    }
    
  33. Ning, A., and Kroo, I., “Tip Extensions, Winglets, and C-Wings: Conceptual Design and Optimization,” 26th AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii, Aug. 2008. doi:10.2514/6.2008-7052 [BibTeX] [DOI] [PDF]
    @inproceedings{Ning2008,
      address = {Honolulu, Hawaii},
      author = {Ning, Andrew and Kroo, Ilan},
      booktitle = {26th {AIAA} Applied Aerodynamics Conference},
      doi = {10.2514/6.2008-7052},
      month = aug,
      title = {Tip Extensions, Winglets, and C-Wings: Conceptual Design and Optimization},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2514/6.2008-7052},
      year = {2008}
    }
    
  34. Chipman, D., Ning, A., and Allred, D., “Intermediate Martian Atmospheric Study and Demonstrator,” SpaceOps 2006 Conference, Rome, Italy, Jun. 2006. doi:10.2514/6.2006-5942 [BibTeX] [DOI]
    @inproceedings{Chipman2006,
      address = {Rome, Italy},
      author = {Chipman, Donovan and Ning, Andrew and Allred, David},
      booktitle = {{SpaceOps} 2006 Conference},
      doi = {10.2514/6.2006-5942},
      month = jun,
      title = {Intermediate Martian Atmospheric Study and Demonstrator},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2514/6.2006-5942},
      year = {2006}
    }
    

Other Publications

  1. Dykes, K., Platt, A., Guo, Y., Ning, A., King, R., Parsons, T., Petch, D., Veers, P., and Resor, B., Effect of Tip-Speed Constraints on the Optimized Design of a Wind Turbine, Golden, CO, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Oct. 2014. [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @techreport{Dykes2014a,
      address = {Golden, CO},
      author = {Dykes, Katherine and Platt, Andy and Guo, Yi and Ning, Andrew and King, Ryan and Parsons, Taylor and Petch, Derek and Veers, Paul and Resor, Brian},
      institution = {National Renewable Energy Laboratory},
      month = oct,
      number = {{NREL/TP}-5000-61726},
      title = {Effect of Tip-Speed Constraints on the Optimized Design of a Wind Turbine},
      year = {2014}
    }
    
  2. Dykes, K., Ning, A., King, R., Graf, P., Scott, G., and Veers, P., Sensitivity Analysis of Wind Plant Performance to Key Turbine Design Parameters: A Systems Engineering Approach, Golden, CO, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Feb. 2014. [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @techreport{Dykes2014b,
      address = {Golden, CO},
      author = {Dykes, K. and Ning, A. and King, R. and Graf, P. and Scott, G. and Veers, P.},
      institution = {National Renewable Energy Laboratory},
      month = feb,
      number = {{NREL/CP}-5000-60920},
      read = {1},
      title = {Sensitivity Analysis of Wind Plant Performance to Key Turbine Design Parameters: A Systems Engineering Approach},
      year = {2014}
    }
    
  3. Ning, A., AirfoilPrep.py Documentation, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sep. 2013. [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @techreport{Ning2013a,
      author = {Ning, Andrew},
      institution = {National Renewable Energy Laboratory},
      month = sep,
      number = {{TP}-5000-58817},
      title = {{AirfoilPrep.py} Documentation},
      year = {2013}
    }
    
  4. Ning, A., pBEAM Documentation, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sep. 2013. [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @techreport{Ning2013b,
      author = {Ning, Andrew},
      institution = {National Renewable Energy Laboratory},
      month = sep,
      number = {{TP}-5000-58818},
      title = {{pBEAM} Documentation},
      year = {2013}
    }
    
  5. Ning, A., CCBlade Documentation, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sep. 2013. [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @techreport{Ning2013c,
      author = {Ning, Andrew},
      institution = {National Renewable Energy Laboratory},
      month = sep,
      number = {{TP}-5000-58819},
      title = {{CCBlade} Documentation},
      year = {2013}
    }
    
  6. Ning, A., “Aircraft Drag Reduction through Extended Formation Flight,” PhD thesis, Stanford University, 2011. [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @phdthesis{Ning2011b,
      author = {Ning, Andrew},
      month = aug,
      school = {Stanford University},
      title = {Aircraft Drag Reduction through Extended Formation Flight},
      year = {2011}
    }
    
  7. Ning, A., “Creation of an Intermediate Environment and Utilizing Switchable Microwave Absorbent Material to Aid in Performing Work on Mars,” Undergraduate Honors Thesis, Brigham Young University, 2006. [BibTeX]
    @mastersthesis{Ning2006,
      author = {Ning, Andrew},
      month = aug,
      school = {Brigham Young University},
      title = {Creation of an Intermediate Environment and Utilizing Switchable Microwave Absorbent Material to Aid in Performing Work on Mars},
      type = {Undergraduate Honors Thesis},
      year = {2006}
    }